A New Look About Photosynthesis According To The Old Theory

According to high school students, leaves of plants use carbon dioxide of the atmosphere and water absorbed by the roots to make starch in the presence of sunlight for the cells of plants to use. As a layman, I have certain doubts about what I discussed with senior students and a professor in university. After discussing, instead of clearing my mind, I want to confirm my thesis that every cell in the plant (except dead cells!) re-uses the CO2 and H20, released during respiration, for synthesizing starch. My conclusion is purely a philosophical one as I lost touch with the world of science in March 1957 after B.Sc. Now I will tell you my points.

 

 

1) The extremely tender, minute root tips are always growing and require continuous supply of starch.In very tall trees,the distance from top leaves to the root tips may be as much as 300 metres.There is no proper mechanism for transport of starch over such distance,unless we can locate different channels for upward movement of water and downward movement of starch in dissolved form, right from root tip to leaf tip and back.Xylem and phloem tissues are mentioned as responsible for this movement,but in trees like teak, jackwood etc all tissues inside the bark except perhaps a thin layer of cortex, are absolutely dead and impervious to water, being filled with wood oil and compressed by the weight of the trunk. That is why we are able to make furniture,boats,ships etc with wood. Actually, the clever tree is making use of the dead cells as a skeleton-like support for its branches and leaves,the latter being mercilessly dropped after making use of them!

 

2) In Silent Valley in Kerala, I was shown a very tall tree, hollow inside, with two convenient natural holes, one at the bottom and the other at the top. We can see the sky, looking up from the bottom hole! The tree is alive. How is water and starch transported when xylem and phloem are absent?

 

3) In Australia, ring cutting was extensively resorted to, for felling trees. The bark and a small part of cortex was removed by making an eight inch deep cutting round the trunk at the bottom. After about six months, the tree falls down dead. This clearly proves that the outermost live cells are responsible for water transport.

 

4) We plant rose cuttings. The cells on one end develop into a shoot and cells on the other side produce roots.Plant cells are remarkably versatile.Every cell can split and produce all chemicals required for making a duplicate cell.It is impossible to believe that a root cell will wait for starch to come from leaves, when raw materials are available as a result of its own respiration, and it has the necessary technical know-how for making even complicated proteins. Do we not re-use waste in a space station? Are we cleverer than plants?

 

5) There is no way for a plant cell,except in the leaves,to get rid of CO2produced during respiration.When I, earlier, circulated my doubts in this regard, via email,I got only one response.The botanist had only one word-‘diffusion’ to describe the process. In the humans, is it enough if we just say ‘respiration’? We study all detailed mechanism in human physiology. In the same way, should we not describe the method used by plants to obtain oxygen and get rid of CO2? The professor also said the same thing.As adjoining cells are also producing CO2, how is diffusion possible?The area surrounding the roots will become saturated with CO2.The root will die.The conclusion is inescapable: cells are recycling water and CO2 produced during respiration.

 

6) When mango fruits are produced in bulk during the season,the number of leaves are actually curtailed! Will farmers curtail production of food grains when it is required in bulk? Laburnum tree becomes almost yellow with flowers in the season, leaves hardly visible.How is starch produced when leaves are reduced?

 

7) Bamboo,papaya tree etc are hollow,in the case of the former, there are segments,each one a waterproof compartment.Coconut tree mysteriously carries gallons of water to make toddy. If you cut the tree, not a trace of water is found. Are trees using nano technology?

 

8) In my view,the main function of leaves is to pump water up for which lot of energy is required.Naturally,they make large quantities of starch which attracted the attention of botanists who hastily came to the conclusion that only leaves are concerned in this process.

 

9) Maximum number of fish thrive in the deep oceans eating planktons which make starch in strata which receive practically no sunlight. In view of the above, I feel more research is needed before we come to a firm conclusion about the mechanism for production of starch and its transportation. Today, institutions like NASA have all the technical capabilities to study this issue which should not be left to the comparatively ill equipped botanists.

 

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Article 347: Quantum Theory is Physical Not a Social Theory

Drs. Hasan A. Yahya,  a writer from Michigan, USA

Unlike social theory, Quantum Theory is a modern physical theory that holds that energy and some other physical properties often exist in tiny, discrete amounts. Older theories of classical physics assumed that these properties could vary continuously. Quantum theory and the theory of relativity together form the theoretical basis of modern physics. The first contribution to quantum theory was the explanation of blackbody radiation in 1900 by Max Planck, who proposed that the energies of any harmonic oscillator are restricted to certain values, each of which is an integral multiple of a basic minimum value. For example, the energy E of this basic quantum is directly proportional to the frequency n of the oscillator; thus E = hn, where Plank’s constant h is equal to 6.63 x (10-34) J–sec. in 1905 Albert Einstein , in order to explain the photoelectric effect,  proposed  that radiation itself is also quantized and consists of light quanta or photons, that behave like particles.  In 1913, another scientist named, Niels Bohr used the quantum theory to explain both atomic structure and atomic spectra. The light or other radiation emitted  and absorbed by atoms is found to have only certain frequencies (or wavelengths), which correspond to the absorption or emission lines seen in atomic spectra. A spectrum however, is an arrangement or display of light or other forms of electromagnetic radiation separated according to wavelength, frequency, energy, or some other property. In this case, dispersion which is the separation of visible light into a spectrum, may be accomplished by means of PRISM or diffraction grating. Each different wavelength or frequency of visible light corresponds to a different color, so that the spectrum appears as a band of colors ranging from violet at the short-wave length (high frequency) end of the spectrum through indigo, blue, green, yellow, and orange, to read at the long-wavelength (low-frequency) end of the spectrum. A continuous spectrum containing all colors is produced by all incandescent solids and liquids and by gases under high pressure.

To go back to quantum theory, these frequencies  correspond to definite energies of the photons and result from the fact that the electrons of the atoms can have only certain allowed energy values, or levels.  When an electron changes from one allowed level to another, a quantum of energy is emitted or absorbed whose frequency is directly proportional to energy difference between  the two energy levels E1 and E2, = hv. Quantum mechanics, the application of the quantum theory to the motions and material particles, was developed during the 1920s. The new observation added in 1924 and 1927, to the theory was made by Louis de Broglie (1924) , who proposed that not only does light exhibit particle-like properties but also particles may exhibit wavelike properties. In 1927, a particularly important discovery of the quantum theory  was the uncertainty  principle, enunciated by Warner Heisberg,  that discovery places an absolute, theoretical limit on the combined accuracy of certain pairs of simultaneous, related measurement.  (530 words) www.askdryahya.com

Source: The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia, 1983, 1989, pp 681 and 779.

Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia, 

Key words: E = hv , Where E = energy of a quantum in joules, h = Planck’s constant or 6.626 x 10 -34 J-sec  and v = frequency in Hertz or sec-1 .

Professor, Dr. Hasan A. Yahya is an Arab American writer, scholar, and professor of Sociology lives in the United States of America,  originally from Palestine. He graduated from Michigan State University with  2 Ph.d degrees. He published 65 books plus (45 Arabic and 20 English), and 400 plus articles on sociology, religion, psychology, politics, poetry, and short stories. Philosophically, his writings concern logic, justice and human rights worldwide. Dr. Yahya is the author of Crescentologism: The Moon Theory,  and  Islam Finds its Way, on Amazon. He’s an expert on Race Relations, Arab and Islamic cultures, he is also, interested in religion, world affairs and  global strategic planning for justice and human rights. www.dryahyatv.com

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Driving Theory Test Explained

All new drivers (including Motorcyclists) have to pass a two part theory test in order to be able to then take the practical test. The theory test has some slightly different questions for motorbikes but generally they are the same.

The test can be booked online or by phone and there should be a local testing station for the majority of people but you can find your local station online. The theory test itself is split into two parts the first part is the multiple choice questions.

For this section you will be presented with a series of multiple choice question to answer. The questions are presented on a touch screen and you will have to choose either 1, 2,3 or more from the list given in order to answer. As you proceed through the questions if you come across any that you are not sure about the answer to you can flag the question for review later on instead of answering immediately. The advantage of this is that as you continue you may come across another similar question which will help you answer the flagged question. The questions themselves are picked completely at random and so it is not uncommon to have several questions on the same subject and because they are worded differently they can give the answer or make it more obvious to other questions. On the test in order to pass you will have to answer a minimum of 43 out of 50 correctly.

The second part will then start after a short break which is the hazard perception part. In this part of the theory test you be presented with a series of video clips shown from the viewpoint of the driver and you will be expected to identity hazards appearing in the clip and then to click the mouse accordingly to show when you would react as a driver. You can score from 5 for early reaction to 0 for no or too late reaction. You will be presented with 14 clips and each clip will have just one hazard to find except for one clip which will show two clips and as you dont know which clip will be the double clip you will have to keep concentrating on the clips after you think you found the hazard. Make sure you are concentrating fully on this section as you cannot go back if you miss the clip or flag for review as you can with the questions. In order to pass this section of the theory test you will have to score a minimum of 44 out of 75.

At the end of the theory test you will be presented with the result and if you have passed this will include the theory certificate, otherwise if you fail on either part you will have to retake the whole test again. In order to practice fully for the test it is a good idea to use a theory test product that gives you all the questions and plenty of hp clips to get the best chance of passing.

James Cornwell is a Driving Instructor who has been teaching for may years and now runs a http://www.onlinetheorytests.co.uk>theory test website for pupils to use to practice for their theory test you can visit it at www.onlinetheorytests.co.uk.

The Theory of Natural Law

In attempting to garner an understanding of the nature of law, early legal philosophers and academics formulated what has come to be known as the natural law theory, and has become a literal cornerstone of the development of modern legal thinking.  Although somewhat limited in modern jurisprudential thinking, natural law has had a tremendous impact on our understanding of what law means in society as a baseline from which to build more complex theories.  In this article, we will look at some of the major propositions underpinning the concept of natural law, and the corresponding strengths and weaknesses of this fundamental interpretation of the legal function.

Natural law starts with the basic premise that the law is driven by morality, and consequently is affected by it.  With a history extending back to Aristotle and other early philosophers, the natural law theory has traditionally linked the law with religion and an innate sense of justice, rather than the more pragmatic approaches of some other theories.  Although this might sound rather basic, the principals have been developed and refined through academic debate for centuries ultimately leading to a far more sophisticated theory of the nature of law.  The idea that all law is subject to an unwritten code of morality is fundamental to natural law.  This also throws up some potential problems in terms of civil regulation.  Certain natural law theorists suggest that for a law to be binding on the citizen, it must conform to this sense of natural justice.  However, there is clearly no definitive objective concept of morality, which casts doubt over this principle.  Additionally, the prospect that a law may be disregarded in favour of some higher sense of morality doesn’t conform in reality, considering the potential implications of consistently disregarding law on the grounds of the subjective concept of justice.  

Furthermore on this primitive understanding of natural law, the citizen in contravention to the laws of his state, could attempt to excuse his actions through a justification of ‘immoral’ laws.  This would also create a state of disorder, given the natural variation of personal opinions, which would ultimately render society unworkable.  For this reason, the natural law scheme has failed to garner modern academic acceptance, of course with a few exceptions.

Natural law has been proposed as a consideration in trying war criminals, on the basis of the retrospectivity principle, i.e. no man can be tried for a crime that was not a crime when he committed it.  Many war criminals are merely cogs in the machine of a legal regime, which ultimately permits their actions, however unjustifiable morally.  Natural law theories give a basis for challenge on these grounds, whilst avoiding the awkward question of direct legal contravention, which ultimately works to serve justice.  In this sense, it is perhaps useful as a canon of interpretation and in determining just and equitable outcomes in ‘difficult’ cases.  However, as a wider legal concept, natural law and the proposed intersection between law and morality seems too awkward to reconcile with considered academic legal understandings.  Having said that, natural law has provided an excellent starting position for further advanced argumentation, and has provided a platform for critique that has been essential to the development of the more sophisticated ideas held in regard in this modern day.

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Laptop battery Barrel Theory

We go to the market to replace the batteries often to see what those who say what they used

ultra-AA level with a compatible battery batteries What does that mean?

In fact, is entirely a propaganda tool, Take the Sanyo to examples, each of the 18,650

-capacity batteries are easy to distinguish,Acer as07a51 batteries and see the battery cover to protect the color

of gas the size of that capacity.
Sanyo battery assembly plants to get batteries available, the matching assembly, also the

first pairing (mainly internal resistance of the pair), and then assembled, which in this

session, battery manufacturers and battery pack manufacturers do not distinguish between A

so-called what. Then, on the market of new 2600mah batteries from what is it? Acer as07a72 batteries One is the

real battery assembly factory stock, is a group of the remaining tailings batteries,

battery assembly plants in order to optimize the quality of the battery, generally refused

to use the remaining tailings which added a new batch of batteries for production; second,

that is, pre-production testing process, we found that due to various factors, has been

substandard 2600mah batteries, but its capacity is significantly higher than the 2400mah

batteries. Both batteries are sold outside the main source of new 2600mah. Acer aspire 4315 batteries Therefore, this

so-called A-What the hell business is entirely their own standards, there is no basis.

Moreover, the battery capacity and the English alphabetical order of the contrary, B-level

is the 2200mah batteries, which is frequently used 4400MAH domestic notebook origin of the

low prices and the most mature.

Guan Yu resistance matching, the relationship with the battery on the’s or not, Ru-off

with a Dianchi li’s power core is almost Yi Zhi Ge Fangmiancenshu Du, Name the Dianchi can

full use of these Dianxin greatest advantage if the Qi Zhong of the particular a number of

parameters of batteries and several other batteries vary greatly, Acer aspire 4520 batteries then the battery can play

to our strengths at this time will receive its influence, and the barrel is the same

principle to determine the capacity of this bucket is the bucket the lowest piece of board

to decide.

Sanyo battery assembly plants to get batteries available, the matching assembly, also the

first pairing (mainly internal resistance of the pair), cheap Acer as07a32 battery and then assembled, which in this

session, battery manufacturers and battery pack manufacturers do not distinguish between A

so-called what

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